Using Adverb Clauses to Show Time Relationships
(Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ các mối quan hệ thời gian)


after (*)
h
before
a. After she graduates, she'll get a job.
b. After she (had) graduated, she got a job.
c. I'll leave before he comes.
d. I (had) left before he came.
Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian dùng
thì hiện tại, không dùng tương lai, xem
ví dụ (a) và (c).
when
e. When I arrived, he was talking on the
phone.
f. When I got there, he had already left.
g. When it began to rain, I stood under
a tree.
h. When I was in Chicago, I visited the
museums.
i. When I see him tomorrow, I'll ask him.
when = at that time (khi, lúc)
Chú ý các thì khác nhau diễn tả những
mối quan hệ thời gian khác nhau.
While
k
As
j. While I was walking home, it began to
rain.
k. As I was walking home, it began to rain.
While, as = during the time
(trong lúc, trong khi)
by the
time
l. By the time he arrived, we had already
left.
m. By the time he comes, we will have
already left.
by the time = một sự kiện hoàn tất trước
một sự kiện khác.
Chú ý: cách dùng các thì quá khứ hoàn
thành và thì tương lai hoàn thành trong
mệnh đề chính.
since
n. I haven't seen him since he left this
morning.
o. I've known her ever since I was a child.
Since = từ lúc đó đến nay.
Câu (o): ever có tác dụng nhấn mạnh
thêm.
Ghi chú: dùng ở thì hoàn thành ở
mệnh chính.
until
i
till
p. We stayed there until we finished our
work.
q. We stayed there till we finished our
work.
until, till = cho đến khi
Till được dùng chủ yếu trong văn nói;
không dùng trong tiếng Anh trang trọng.
as soon as

once
r. As soon as it stops raining, we will
leave.
s. Once it stops raining, we will leave.
as soon as, once = khi một sự việc xảy
ra, một sự việc khác xảy ra ngay sau đó;
ngay khi, ngay lúc.
as long as

so long as
t. I will never speak to him again as long
as
I leave.
u. I will never speak to him again so long
as
I live.
as long as, so long as = trong suốt lúc,
cho đến khi nào.
whenever
everytime
v. Whenever I see her, I say hello.
w. Everytime I see her, I say hello.
whenever = every time
(bất cứ khi nào)
*the first
time
*the last
time
*the next
time
x. The first time (that) I went to New York,
I went to an opera.
y. I saw two plays the last time (that) I went
to New York.
z. The next time (that) I go to New York, I
am going to see a ballet.
Mệnh đề trạng ngữ có thể được giới
thiệu bằng các từ sau đây.
kkk k first
kk k k second
the third ,ect. time (that)
kkkk last
kkk k next

(Tư liệu tham khảo:
Betty Schrampfer Azar.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd Ed.)

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